Petersburg State University

The most efficient basis for obtaining adsorbents with targeted control properties can be aluminosilicate minerals, since their structure can enter virtually any organic additives and mineral origin, which will be attached to the surface of grains required properties. Distinctive and positive feature of these minerals is a "defect" in their crystal lattice and the ability for cation substitutions. The layered structure aluminosilicates can not take the cations only in its crystal lattice, but also in the interlayer and the interplanar space, as well as on the basal plane of the mineral particles. As these base cations can serve as magnesium and calcium, which have weak communication with the surface of mineral particles in the aquatic environment easy enough to pass into solution. Cations magnesium and calcium, as demonstrated by many years of research at the Department of Water Supply and Sewerage "St. Petersburg State University of Communications, operates a major role in the process of sorption extraction of polluted waste water, taking part in the beginning (by chemical action) in the formation of new compounds, and then creating colloidal structures of these compounds on the surface of grains of the adsorbent and the intergranular pore space. Therefore, in the manufacture of aluminosilicate adsorbent materials as an activator supplements administered compound of magnesium and calcium. Important technological features of activated aluminosilicate adsorbent are: the ability to ion exchange of alkaline earth and alkali metals (Mg2 +, Ca2 +, Na +) through "Nullity" of the crystal lattice cation, from which the adsorbent is made, and increase the pH to 9 in the filtered water through the adsorbent, the emergence of a positive -potential at the boundary section of the grain of the adsorbent – liquid "in filtration of water through the adsorbent bed; recovery of sorption activity of activated aluminosilicate adsorbent with respect to heavy metal ions by means of regeneration, carried out directly in the filter building.

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